These included several from the Arab world, notably from Algeria and Palestine, in which the perpetrators were Islamic militants and Israeli jailers, respectively. In turn, this prompted several Arab female social scientists to document and analyze tens of similar cases in the following three years, and to prepare for the Beijing fourth World Conference on Women. These five associations were all initiated by the same Arab social-science activists who had intimidated the Arab human rights movement following the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982. Their misgivings concerning the Arab governments’ ineptness at the time led many of them to take these initiatives to create new CSOs autonomously, apart from the official governmental-controlled professional unions. These include the Baghdad-based Arab Economists Union, Arab Sociologists Union, Arab Historians Union, Arab Women Union, and the Damascus-based Arab Journalists Union. While these older professional organizations have continued, albeit in a semi-stagnant form, it is the newer research and advocacy organizations of the 1980s and 1990s which have produced most social-science research. But even more relevant to the Oslo Agreement is the sudden explosion of research activities in the would-be Palestinian State, provisionally called the Palestinian National Authority . Some twenty research centers or research groups sprang up between 1993 and 1998 in the West Bank and Gaza. Ambitious research agendas were formulated and implemented — sometimes carefully and thoughtfully — but more often in a hurry, to respond to emerging needs. Such research agendas covered themes and topics of various aspects of nation and state-building, refugees, Jewish settlements, water, and social change in rural and urban communities in Palestine. A new interest in the research and documentation of pre-1948 Palestinian communities, folk culture, and properties has become a sole pre-occupation of several centers and research groups. Sociologists were heavily researching the socio-cultural impact of oil wealth, the rise of new social formations, and Islamic activism. The last two issues continued to occupy sociologists in the 1990s. But, added to their agenda are the social ramifications of ERSAP, growing poverty and random violence in rapidly growing slum areas, and the rise of civil society organizations and NGOs. Between the early 1980s and late 1990s, Arab economists were heavily researching the fallouts of oil wealth, its revenues, remittances, money surpluses and shortages in the region, as well as the continuing problems of underdevelopment . But governance regimes are not going to mutate in the desired direction of their own volition. Indeed, that is unlikely to arise in the absence of significant change in the institution of Arab science itself, particularly in the social sciences. A beneficial role of donor organizations supporting research in Arab countries should revolve around support for both the generation and utilization of knowledge in service to human development. Partial information was collected on additional 72 institutions from a variety of sources (ESCWA, 1997, p.10). To motivate the discussion, however, a brief look on the contents of one of the most venerable Arab periodicals over 20 years would be useful. Al-Mostakbal al-Arabi , or the Arab Future, is a journal which is the flagship publication of the Centre for Arab Unity Studies in Beirut. As its name implies, CAUS is concerned with pan-Arab issues, particularly in the perspective of unity. The Centre, through a determined leadership, has also been instrumental in creating, and supporting, pan-Arab associations, including professional ones — notably in sociology, political science, and economics. One manifestation of this type of deprivation is the lack of effective and integrated support to small- and micro-enterprises. This is true in spite of the fact that private economic activity in the Arab region is overwhelmingly small-scale, even when restricted to non-agricultural enterprises. Moreover, small and informal economic activities are relatively successful in job creation, though their low productivity is a problem. Nevertheless, support to this sector is weak and has been further enfeebled under structural adjustment that favors large capital . A very strong link between poverty and unemployment is evident if the low-income dimension of underemployment, or the miserable working and living conditions endured by the working poor is considered. Indeed, poverty and unemployment become almost inseparable when the wider aspects of employment, together with poverty as powerlessness are considered. Limited and deteriorating access to any means of building human capital can also be traced to the domain of health, where the poor are increasingly deprived of high-quality basic, curative, healthcare in most Arab countries. On the other hand, non-educational factors — the socio-economic contexts of education — undermine the ability for human-capital stock to serve as an engine of development in the region. The prevalence of illiteracy and poverty — particularly as manifested in child malnutrition — are factors that detract from the potential for learning. Dignity as perceived at the end of the 20th century — must be satisfied for every member of the society.

These agencies or boards are public bodies with legal status and financial independence. Some have a substantial infrastructure and conduct research and studies on a significant scale. Fairly well-equipped, and with a small but usually highly skilled staff, their research is mainly applied and often sectoral in character . This agency has not fully discharged the responsibilities it was given. It produces little and most of its output is dormant due to lack of resources, no clearly established purpose, and because there is no genuine national policy on research. From the SAPs to the free trade area, the shapers of economic policy in Morocco have had difficulty grasping the seriousness of the situation created by disastrous mismanagement of the economy in the 1970s. In agriculture, research issues that attracted attention in the nineties are fungal and wilt diseases in plant pathology; cotton leaf-worm , and pink boll-worm in the area of entomology; and rice, wheat and cotton in field crops. Research topics that have been somewhat neglected, despite their importance to agricultural yields, are biological controls, the rust diseases , the leaf miner, drought resistance, and the re-use of drainage water. In physics, the subjects that were often studied in the area of solid state are work on polymers, glasses, and semiconductors. There are numerous examples of advanced subjects in physics that have not been investigated in Egypt. Some of these include nanostructures, superconductivity, laser work, and very fast phenomenon like femtosecond interactions. The relevance of the research issues to the priorities and challenges of Egypt on the national and international levels. Is allocated to capital expenses as compared to an average of 9.4% in the developed countries and an average of 29.1% in the developing countries group . The reason for the high capital-expenditure share in research in Egypt and in the developing countries in general is that those countries are still in the stage of building their research capacity. Thus, they require more investment in equipment and other capital expenses. A second argument is that there is a “hidden agenda” for some foreign donors, which makes them indifferent to the quality of research produced as long as the research project they fund provides them with the required research inputs . This material will be used afterwards by competent researcher abroad who will cover the subject efficiently.

Climate and Environment

In addition, he has appeared on the world’s major TV networks. Galal Amin is a professor of Economics at the American University in Cairo. His specialty is in microeconomics, economic development, history of economic thought and economics of the Middle East. He completed his PhD from the London School of Economics, along with a diploma in Public Law, from the Faculty of Law, Cairo University. He was presented with the award for Economics from the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science, 1981; the Order of Merit for the Sciences and Arts from the President of Egypt, 1977, and the State Prize for Economics in 1976. In the area of communication, we have been experimenting with a number of research networks. It is not always obvious when you hook up a computer with a modem and connect people that they will know how to communicate and how to exchange information, even less how they will conduct joint-research together. We have been supporting a small number of projects to determine the best way of doing it. But one important criterion for content is to identify the user. Many people have expressed concern that the content of the Internet is in English. While it is true that in the beginning it was 100% in English, now we see a number of sites in Spanish, Russian, and other languages increasing significantly. Alexander Graham Bell may have invented the telephone but that didn’t dictate that it had to be used in English. We have to take Internet technology as a language-neutral technology just like the telephone. We can use this technology to build websites in all different languages depending on the user we intend to serve. We were surprised to see that a lot of people were giving credit card numbers without any security. Now the type of help is how to use credit cards appropriately in Internet transactions. Another is a study being conducted now to sell Grameen fabrics in Bangladesh via the Internet. A website must be prepared that will show the different colors and patterns and how to buy via the Internet. Other content applications are in distance education in all kinds of fields. The limited use of computer systems in public administration and government systems means, among other things, that as government systems penetrate everywhere, the potential extent of reach is tremendous, whereas at present it’s limited. High taxation of computer hardware and software, a problem which some countries have solved, has resulted in missed opportunity. Not enough people are being trained because of the prohibitive cost of the technology. As a result, many countries lost the opportunity when the window was there and now need to catch up quickly. Incentives, even subsidies, rather than taxation, will allow people to buy the needed technologies for inclusion in the global network. The presentations of Mohamed Kassas and David Brooks triggered lively discussions around the issues of water, biodiversity, and research support.

Examples include the results achieved in genetic improvement , technology transfer, rural engineering and water management, and agricultural extension. Although Morocco has not made R&D a national priority, it does have substantial assets capable of promoting the sector and turning it into a key development vehicle. Morocco now has a substantial corps of highly qualified young researchers trained in world-renowned institutions. Relatively well-equipped research facilities have evolved and are doing first-class work in a variety of sciences and technologies. In general, the private sector is the least active player in research activity in Morocco. Private-research institutions face serious obstacles in the areas of organization, management, and staff recruitment. In particular, they are impeded by the lack of any national mechanism through which to exploit and market the results of their research. Some agencies that are directly subject to a particular ministry conduct research that primarily addresses practical concerns. Some have a substantial national infrastructure, with local and regional branches and excellent scientific staff. Examples are the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique , Bureau des Recherches et des Prospections Minières . Economically, the promotion of R&D has become an essential precondition for economic development and social progress. This must happen if Morocco is to successfully meet the challenges of an increasingly open national economy and of globalization. R&D is also a vital element in coping with the worldwide pace of technological change. This new challenge for the Moroccan economy demands a thorough upgrading of several sectors, including R&D, that has now become an indispensable tool. While research has yet to acquire the status of a national priority in Morocco, that country does have major assets that could transform its R&D sector into a key vehicle for development. Contemporary Morocco has excellent scientific and technical talent drawn from a young and vigorous population trained in world-class centres. While their work and their accomplishments rarely find practical applications in Morocco , they do offer evidence of the foregoing claim. As well, relatively well-equipped research facilities have been established that are funded entirely by the Moroccan government. Nobody now questions the direct link between scientific and technical research, and development, growth and economic competitiveness. All developed and emerging countries — and even some of the developing countries — are aware of this fact and, increasingly, are making R&D a national priority. The picture is completely different if we compare Egypt with countries outside the Arab region. As shown in Table 2, more than 50% of research personnel in the developed countries are concentrated in the production sector. On the other hand, in the developing countries , the percentage of research personnel located in the production sector is around 20%, while the figure is 13.5% in Egypt. In the production sector as compared to higher education and services sectors. In developing countries, the highest percentage of research personnel is located in the higher education sector , or in the services sector , with the exception of South Korea and Singapore .

Verbal attack on teen girls aboard Calgary bus potentially hate motivated: police

Very little Arab research has taken place in is the area of conflict management and resolution. It should be complemented by research initiatives on post-conflict reconstruction on the inter-personal, inter-groups, and inter-state levels. These involve patterns, processes and trends, and impact on listeners as well as viewers. Very little, if any, of Arab social research in the 1980s and 1990s employed a participatory approach in which the subjects, were briefed about the research objectives or given an opportunity to express their opinion. The latter may bear on the objective itself, or reflect the best way of achieving it. Participatory research does not mean that the target group has a free reign in defining the research problem or determining the methods and techniques. But it does entail an active dialogue with members of the target group — either individually or collectively. This approach has proven to be very satisfactory to the research subjects, as well as being fruitful and enriching to the researcher. More importantly, it bridges the psychic and social gaps between the researched and the researcher. Despite the egalitarian claims of many Arab researchers, they still resist the participatory approach — partly out of unfamiliarity and primarily due to condescension. An equally noted exception to the above remarks about lagging methodologies concerns economics and formal demography. Arab researchers in both disciplines are more in tune with sophisticated, qualitative techniques. The fact that their respective subject matter lends itself to numbers makes it possible to use ordinal and interval levels of measurement, and scaling devices help in practicing advanced methods more easily. Resulting social research may often be so defective that it brings about defective results which, in turn, reduces or destroys the faith of users in the proficiency of indigenous Arab researchers.

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These research endeavors have been supported by IDRC to diverse institutions of the regions. The region continues to entertain a poor competitive position in the global economy. Income from rents and consumer-oriented industries still predominates over income from productive enterprises. The context of market globalization and the gradual withdrawal of the state from the social and economic sectors encourages an environment of weak national planning and inefficient management of national budgets. We need to understand the context for decision-making in developing countries. This includes the research environment — by which we mean the institutional, human, and financial resources involved in research, their linkages to other parts of society, and to those doing related research in other countries and regions. Also included is how developing countries see the priorities for the research agenda.

EGYPT VINTAGE PHOTO . CUTE LADY WITH FLOWER & WOODEN SOFA – Photo Rizk Allah

Loving grandfather of Natasha, Ashley, Michelle, Rihana, Nathan, Matthew, Michael, Justin,… In Ottawa on Monday, March , Joan Abbott after a long struggle with dementia and arthritis left us at the age of 93. Her beloved husband of 67 years John “Kim” Abbott died in 2011. She will be sadly missed by her daughter Susan Abbott of Ottawa and her son John … ABBOTT, Frank Frank Abbott was a lifelong teacher and learner, sustained by a profound scientific curiosity and great intellect. His infinite desire to acquire understanding shone through in his reading, research, travels and conversation. Many remember his storytelling, weaving in his deep knowledge of the natural… ABBINETT-McKee, Shaun Elanne On October 15th, 2008 after a lengthy and courageous battle with cancer in Victoria, B.C. Beloved daughter of the late Frieda May Dowler and Lorne T. Abbinett. She will be greatly missed by her daughter Morggan of Victoria and her grandchildren, Cole, Tyson and Shyann…. Surrounded lovingly by her family, Donna, loving wife to Terry, much loved mother to Angela and Sunshine and proud grandmother to Declan. ABBINETT, Frieda May Peacefully on Wednesday, December 3rd, 2008 at the age of 89 at Mount St. Mary Hospital in Victoria, B.C. Wife of the late Lorne Thomas Abbinett. Loving mother of Dana Chloe, Lake Echo, N.S., Terry , Ottawa and Andra , Chilliwack, B.C. Predeceased by son, Darryl … ABBAS , Sonya Marie Tuesday, May 11, 2004, Sonya Abbas, age 30. Fondly remembered by Sohail and many other family and friends. Friends may pay respects at the Kelly Funeral Home, 580… It is with great sadness that the family of Joanne Martin Beaulieu of Ottawa, ON announce her passing, on Friday, May 21, 2021, at the age of 43 years. Born in Ottawa, she was the daughter of the late Ronald and Jacqueline Martin. She will be lovingly remembered by her son Clark Beaulieu, and by her three brothers,…

But most of our support tends to be to individual, standalone projects — and this will continue to be the dominant modality for IDRC’s operations for the coming years. Yesterday Nader Fergany talked about the conflicting emotions facing him and mentioned an optimism of the spirit combined with a pessimism of the mind. I felt similar, ambivalent feelings listening to the discussions yesterday. On the one hand, I am optimistic that IDRC is on the right track. We are addressing some of the key social and economic problems in the region, whether these are governance and the transition to democracy, poverty and social exclusion, or problems of employment and enterprise creation. But at the same time, I admit to having a heavy dose of pessimism, largely because of a sense that the scale of the problems tends to dwarf the magnitude of our programs. This should make us humble in approaching a session like this. The crux of the process of poor enabling development is institutional reform of major proportions that radically raises the share of the poor in the power structure of society. Institutional reform is the path to maximizing the social capital of the poor. As such it is institutional reform, rather than economic growth per se, that constitutes the heart of poor-enabling development. More importantly, growth is doomed, in the context of unrestrained and uncompetitive markets, to grossly favor the rich and penalize the poor. The financial constraints faced by MSMEs are another manifestation of how the unequal development and underdevelopment patterns are reflected in the institutional setup of the region’s societies. In Egypt, for example, the banking industry is severely underdeveloped in several aspects in comparison to advanced countries, in such ways as branching, the range of services offered, and the quality of these services.

Inter-community Relations Factor on the Empowerment of the Aisle Community in Makassar City: A Structural Equation Model

In physics, 11 studies have been reviewed and assessed in the area of solid state and related applied topics, specifically in petroleum industries. Reporting the experiment results may not be as precise or as comprehensive as it should be. Some important variables may be neglected despite their important impacts on the final outcome of the experiment. For example, a research experiment was conducted with the objective of raising the quality of Egyptian rice. This is an important issue, since the quality of rice is a critical determinant of its export value and, hence, of the country’s foreign exchange earnings. By experimenting with different dosages and timing of nitrogen fertilizers, it has been found that the quality has improved. But nothing was mentioned in the study on the impact of the quality improvement on the quantity produced . It is quite common that improving quality is accompanied by reducing quantity; if this applies to the rice experiment, this factor should be accounted for in the overall assessment of the experiment’s outcome — and reported in the study. With the changing age structures of the Arab population, numbers of older women will probably increase proportionately. Since most Arab women are not part of the organized formal labor force, they will be outside the “social security” schemes. Modalities to cope with this eventuality must be anticipated by policy and action-oriented research. Public opinion and electoral research represents a research area in which Palestinian social scientists have taken a definite lead. The Center for Palestinian Research and Studies has emerged as a research leader whose work is highly acclaimed. It was followed by the Jordanian Center for Strategic Studies , the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies , and Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies . While still confined to four Arab countries, this is one of the most promising areas of social research, in which Kuwait, Yemen, Morocco, and other democratizing countries are expected to follow. Arab social research is again emerging as a pioneer initiative among developing countries. There is a growing community of researchers, at both the senior and junior levels, who are developing their empirical and analytical competence quite rapidly.

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Beirut, however, has some 1 million cars, most of which are over 10 years old. In many MENA countries, laws and traditions exacerbate land degradation. Islamic inheritance rules lead to fragmentation of landholdings into unsustainable units. Unrestricted grazing on commonly-held lands affects pastoral zones of Maghreb countries, Jordan, and Syria. This results not only in depletion of soil resources, but also to loss of biodiversity. The rural West Bank is rapidly losing its traditional character, not only due to construction of Jewish colonies but also to the sprawling growth of Palestinian villages and towns. The aspect of equity in water distribution is a critical issue, too. Lopsided consumption patterns punish Palestinian farmers and householders. During the summer of 1998, water supplies to the Palestinian city of Hebron were cut repeatedly, while adjacent Jewish settlements continued to irrigate their lawns by spraying. In many countries, high water-demand farming techniques are often used inappropriately. For example, one water expert describes the continued cultivation of thirsty oranges in Gaza as “ludicrous — a romantic anachronism.” By some standards, MENA outperforms other developing regions. Its transport and communications infrastructure is generally good. It has important and longstanding trade ties with the rest of the world, particularly Europe and the Mediterranean region. Notably, MENA’s exports of oil constitute half of world trade in this essential commodity, while its oil reserves account for two thirds of the world total. At the end of Part I, as well as at the end of each of the three sections of Part II, we have tried to review the discussion points of particular relevance. Part III, the conclusion, focuses on highlighting points representing major concerns and recommendations for IDRC in order for work to continue in the region. Because of the Palestinian development context, IDRC is now formulating a strategy to ensure more concerted and consolidated program-delivery in Palestine, directed toward the questions of state-building, democratic governance, and peace. The refugee issue needs a strong and systematic base of research and policy strategies to empower stakeholders to undertake action once the final-status talks move into full operation.

Pesticide Toxicity Prevention in Farmer’s Community Movement

In short, the opportunity cost of quality research is high — and the research environment is discouraging. Most of the research produced and published is done by academicians to fulfill their promotion requirements. The quality of this type of research is questionable, given the soft system of refereeing applied by the promotion committees in most cases. Increasing the private-sector’s demand for R&D is needed, especially in manufacturing, because of the strong correlation between technology development and production growth. Current developments taking place in many of the developing countries at the national level and on the international level should increase the private demand for R&D in those countries. Egypt is adopting a privatization program of industries that were traditionally owned by the state, and is also negotiating free-trade agreements with Europe and other countries. It is expected that these developments will increase private demand for industrial R&D in Egypt so that the quality and numbers of exports will improve, particularly considering the tough competition in the international markets.

  • ABOU RAHAL, Nouha Peacefully, in hospital, after a valiant battle with cancer on Tuesday, November 29, 2011 at the age of 67 years.
  • A number of participants also raised the point that the water issues of the region were not limited to quantity, but include quality.
  • This represents not only economic change but also a social and cultural one.
  • The presentations of Mohamed Kassas and David Brooks triggered lively discussions around the issues of water, biodiversity, and research support.
  • Are users exchanging e-mail, accessing information from the West, or exchanging information?

From our point of view, this interaction should ensure that the strategy we pursue is attuned to the realities of the countries and institutions we work with, and that the research we support addresses at least some key issues. Participants saw a strong role for IDRC in encouraging multidisciplinary and multisectoral work when dealing with the complex issues of poverty, employment, or governance, and to pursue research that is closer to the concerns of policymakers. The relation of research to power was emphasized in this regard, and the need to promote and support critical social science as the means to true enlightenment, knowledge and empowerment was noted. Earlier on, a point was made about need for linkages between researchers in MENA and those in other regions. SUB has created a network of researchers working on the protection, production, and processing of naturally based medicinal plants. They focus on ways to create incentives to promote both production and conservation at the same time. By this very process, the PI also identifies research that can ensure that property rights to those plants remain in the hands of local communities. This work on traditional knowledge and indigenous property rights is very important for MENA, and it should have high priority for distribution in Arabic language publications. I am afraid that IDRC has been guilty of neglecting Arabic as a research language. Much of our work is trilingual – English, French and Spanish – but we can and ought to take steps to become quadralingual by publishing more in Arabic. The first issue is data and several people mentioned this. One of the difficulties with good social and economic research is the shortage of data in key areas. We have supported some work which is geared to improving the quality and availability of data. But this is clearly a problem that goes beyond the resources of an organization like IDRC. We must think with our partners about ways to address that. One form is the blatant duality MENA societies suffer from. On the one hand, rich powerful minorities enjoy the fruits of the development process in terms of strong ties or access to the West, education, wealth, and services. But on the other end of the spectrum, we have the great sea of the disadvantaged, the illiterate, the uneducated, the poor and the informal. Politically, this duality is reflected in the coexistence of the modern political institutions and trends that are mainly related to the same more-sophisticated and privileged sects of society. These coexist with more traditional sectors of society — such as the mosque and fundamentalist movements — with which the uneducated and the disadvantaged sympathize. Unlike Egypt, the research system in Morocco has not developed large and weighty research institutions. Consequently , for the past 30 years research has become a private, individual career activity, and a growing gap has developed between research and teaching. The best researchers are now connected to international research centres — either French or American. This happens at the expense of average research that can be adapted to local, social needs. The only interesting development model that exists in Morocco is the applied research undertaken by the Institut Agronomique, where there is a worthwhile articulation between research, teaching, and development work. These centres of excellence are developing the practice of providing expert opinions that must become a key element in national policy. More and more, they are placing their skills and expert knowledge at the nation’s disposal in preparation for administrative and political decisions based on scientific opinion. The sectors involved include agri-food, environment, water and fisheries. Of the permanent teacher-researchers in the postsecondary system, 88.3% work in the universities , while 11.7% are in management training institutions. More than 60% of the latter are in natural sciences and technology, compared to 40% in social sciences. The research in hard sciences in Egypt suffers from a deficiency in state-of-the-art equipment; this makes advanced-technology research difficult to pursue. Among other things, it result in poor training of present and future professionals at both research institutes and universities. Unlike the social sciences, advanced research in hard sciences is extremely expensive. It demands sophisticated technical equipment, the prices of which are far beyond the financial resources allocated to research in Egypt. The outcome is that the Egyptian scientists are left behind with respect to their scientific training and capabilities, no matter what their potential is. To substantiate the above, we reviewed 225 recent research-project documents published by Egypt’s National Center for Sociological and Criminological Research , from the period 1970 to 1995. The NCSCR is the oldest and biggest social-science research institution in the Arab world . Yet out of these 225 projects, only three dealt directly with environmental issues — and all were conducted in the 1990s.

In the mid-1980s, in principle promoted by the Centre for Arab Unity Studies in Beirut, a number of pan-Arab professional associations were set up. The three principal ones are for sociology, political science, and economics. A few small foreign institutions in the region, can, in theory, overcome some limitations of the two main types of research institutions. However, none has established a centre of excellence for relevant research. These institutions cater to western research agendas through funding and/or affiliation. In particular, the politicization of pan-Arab professional associations was elevated to the level of petty regional power politics. As a result, they met the fate of their national counterparts and their promise for enhancing progress through science in the region was largely wasted. Arab regimes have their own local agendas — not necessarily served by close pan-Arab cooperation. In addition, the Arab cold war (between “progressive” and “reactionary” regimes) was followed by regional earthquakes (Sadat’s “separate” peace and Sadam’s invasion of Kuwait). The grim repercussions of the latter are still with us, particularly in light of the way the USA and Britain chose to handle it. The financial crisis of standing science institutions in some countries is forcing near paralysis of the presumed function of these organizations. This is a financial blueprint for an inept bureaucracy, not a cutting-edge R&D organization at the end of the 20th century. If this is the situation with regard to the number of science institutions, the information base on structures, functions, resources, and outputs — not to mention assessments of relevance and effectiveness— is likely to be even more rudimentary. The context of science is framed in a disabling political economy in many countries of the Third World. Arab countries are included, and this context operates through a socio-political environment that is worth examining. But, at the other extreme, Yemen represents least-developed countries in the region. It has a relatively large population with a small R&D personnel presence, and a low level of both gross economic output and GERD. As is obvious in Figure 7, Israel is an exceptional case in scientific productivity, as measured by publications. On three of the four measures of publication productivity considered, it surpasses all other nine regions —with a wide margin in two instances . A direct, wider-ranging comparison with the Arab region is presented next. How the Arab region compares to its regional rival in the arena of S&T is clearly crucial to the balance of power and to the future of regional arrangements.

Only large-scale industries have been able to cash in on this restructuring finance. One reason for this imbalance is that there are few institutional channels for getting aid to small- and micro-sized enterprises. Another is that MENA governments have viewed this type of aid as a form of compensation — a hand-out rather than a hand-up. Not surprisingly, the creation and maintenance of libraries, databases and university research facilities has also lagged behind. The gross enrollment ratio at university age in Arab countries rose from 9% in 1980 to 13% in 1995. Yet the university GER in industrialized countries grew faster during the same period, from 36% to 60% .

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